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Blog: Conducting Online Focus Group Discussions during health crisis: Facilitator’s and Evaluator’s Reflections

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Lesedi Senamele Matlala_JET Education Services

Posted 2 years ago

Use of Online Focus Groups Discussions (FGD) has expanded over the past months, as well as in the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) field since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although guidelines on how to successfully conduct online focus groups might have been issued and published elsewhere, this blog focuses on my experiences and reflections in conducting online FGD during the times of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa.

Explicit suggestions and critical perspectives for conducting online FGD using Google Meet are given to those who may be new in using online platforms for FGD. Please click here (EDUCovid TIG BLOG Article Final_JET Education.pdf) to read more on the author's blog article. 

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5 months ago DR SHABBIR HUSSAIN commented :

What is parkinson’s disease ?

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder which will affects the central nervous system.

Parkinson’s disease primarily affects the motor system, leading to a range of symptoms that worsen over time.

The exact cause of Parkinson disease is still not known, but it is believe to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

In Parkinson’s, dopamine-producing cells will not work properly in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in coordinating movement and its deficiency leads to the motor symptoms associated with the disease.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

The primary motor symptoms are –

  1. Tremors: Typically, a resting tremor in one hand, which can also affect the legs, chin, or other parts of the body.
  2. Rigidity: Stiffness and resistance to movement in the limbs and joints.
  3. Bradykinesia: Slowness of movement, making it difficult to initiate and execute voluntary movements.
  4. Postural instability: Impaired balance and coordination, leading to problems with posture and frequent falls.
  5. <a href="">Physio Talk</a>

3 months ago DR SHABBIR HUSSAIN commented :


 Zero gravity, experienced by astronauts during space missions, presents unique challenges to the human body.

When in microgravity environments like the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts’ muscles, bones, and cardiovascular systems are affected due to the absence of normal gravitational forces.

What challanges astronauts will face during microgravity

Astronauts face several challenges during periods of microgravity, such as those experienced during space missions.

Microgravity, also known as weightlessness, is the condition in which objects appear to be weightless and free-fall around a celestial body, such as Earth.

Here are some of the challenges astronauts encounter in microgravity:

Muscle Atrophy and Weakness:

Without the constant force of gravity, muscles don’t need to work as hard to support the body, leading to muscle atrophy (loss of muscle mass) and weakness.

Astronauts may experience reduced muscle tone and strength, especially in the legs and back.

Bone Density Loss:

In microgravity, bones are not subjected to the normal mechanical stresses of weight-bearing, leading to bone density loss and an increased risk of fractures.

This condition is similar to osteoporosis on Earth.

Fluid Redistribution:

Fluids in the body redistribute in microgravity, causing the face to appear puffy and legs to become thinner due to the lack of gravity pulling fluids downward.

This can affect blood pressure regulation and make astronauts more susceptible to dehydration.

Cardiovascular Deconditioning:

The heart doesn’t have to work as hard to pump blood against gravity in microgravity, leading to cardiovascular deconditioning.

Astronauts may experience a decrease in cardiovascular fitness and a decrease in blood volume.

Space Motion Sickness:

Some astronauts experience space motion sickness during the initial phase of microgravity exposure.

This can lead to nausea, vomiting, and disorientation as the body adapts to the absence of gravitational cues.